Wednesday, 4 November 2009

Англи хэлний Хичээл №2

За ээлжит англи хэлний хичээлээ хүргэе... Мэддэг зүйлс байгаа байх бататгаад авах хэрэгтэй шүү!!!

Англи хэлний дүрэм- 2

Үйл үг

Үйл үг нь доорх хоёр төрөлд хуваагдана.
- Гол үйл үг
- Туслах үйл үг
o Гол үйл үг
Гол үйл үг нь үйл явдал (action) ба байдлыг (states) илэрхийлнэ. Хэлбэрийнх нь хувьд гол үйл үгийг хоёр хуваадаг.
* Дүрэмт үйл үг (regular verb)
* Дүрэмт бус үйл үг (irregular verb)

Regular Verb
This page shows the basic tenses with the regular verb work.
base verb past past participle present participle -ing
work worked worked working

Irregular Verb
This page shows the basic tenses with the irregular verb sing.
base verb past past participle present participle -ing
sing sang sung singing

Гол үйл үгийн төрөл
Гол үйл үг доорх үндсэн төрөлд хуваагдана. Үүнд:
1. Үйл хөдлөл заасан үйл үгс нь үйл үгийн бүх цагаар хувирна.
Жишээ нь:
Walk –алхах read –унших go –явах
Tuya has read 3 English books. – Туяа 3 Англи ном уншаад байгаа.
He has been working for half an hour. – Тэр хагас цаг гүйгээд байна.

2. Байдал заасан үйл үгс нь дараах байдлыг илэрхийлнэ. Үүнд:
Мэдрэхүйг илэрхийлэх
Ж нь:
Feel –мэдрэх hear –сонсох see –харах
Smell –үнэрлэх taste –амтлах
Сэтгэлийн хөдөлгөөн илэрхийлэх
Ж нь:
Hate –дургүй байх love –хайрлах want –хүсэх
Оюуны үйл ажиллагааг илэрхийлэх
Forget –мартах Believe –итгэх
Agree –зөвшөөрөх Expect –хүлээх, бодох
Байдал заасан үйл үгс үндсэн утгаараа үргэлжилэх цагийн бүлгүүдэд хувирахгүй бөгөөд хэрэв хувирвал үндсэн утга нь өөрчлөгдөнө.
Ж нь:
This cake tastes good. –Энэ бялуу сайхан амттай юм.
We were tasting some interesting France wines. –Бид Францын хэд хэдэн төрлийн сонирхолтой дарс ууж байлаа.

Туслах үйл үгс

Гол үйл үгтэй хоршиж цаг хугацаа, эргэлзээ, чадвар гэх мэтээр нэгэн утга илэрхийлэх үгсийг туслах үйл үгс гэнэ. To be, to have нь үндсэн чанартай туслах үйл үг, To do нь туслах чанартай туслах үйл үг
Will, may, must, can зэрэг нь баймж үйл үгс юм.

“To be” үйл үг
1* Хүн ба юмсын талаар мэдээлэл өгөх, нас
2* биеийн болон сэтгэл санааны байдал
3* юмны үнэ, цаг, сар, өдөр, зай, хэмжээ

Одоо цаг Өнгөрсөн цаг Ирээдүй цаг
Хүүрнэх өг-т
I am was shall be
He, she, it Is was will be
you, we, they are were Will be
Асуух өг-т
I Am … Was ... shall ... be
He, she, it Is ... Was ... will ... be
you, we, they Are ... Were ... Will ... be
Үгүйсгэх өг-т
Одоо цаг Өнгөрсөн цаг Ирээдүй цаг
I am not was not shall not be
He, she, it Is not was not will not be
you, we, they are not were not will not be

“To have” үйл үг
Энэ үг нь ямар нэгэн эзэмшлийг илэрхийлнэ.
Одоо цаг Өнгөрсөн цаг Ирээдүй цаг
Хүүрнэх өг-т
He, she, it has had will have
I, you, we,they have had shall have
Асуух өг-т
He, she, it Does ... have? Did ... have? Will ... have?
I, you, we,they Do ... have? Did ... have? Shall ... have?
Үгүйсгэх өг-т
He, she, it has not did not have will not have
I, you, we,they have not did not have shall not have

“To do” үйл үг
Бие даасан үг болохынхоо хувьд “хийх” гэсэн утгатай.
Жирийн одоо цаг Жирийн өнгөрсөн цаг
Хүүрнэх өг-т
He, she, it does did
I, you, we,they do did
Асуух өг-т
He, she, it Does ... ? Did ... ?
I, you, we,they Do ... ? Did ... ?
Үгүйсгэх өг-т
He, she, it does not did not
I, you, we,they do not did not

o Баймж үйл үгс
"Can" is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.
• I can ride a horse. ABILITY
• We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity
• She cannot stay out after 10 PM. PERMISSION
• Can you hand me the stapler? REQUEST
• Any child can grow up to be president. POSSIBILITY

"Could" is used to express possibility or past ability as well as to make suggestions and requests. "Could" is also commonly used in conditional sentences as the conditional form of "can."
• Extreme rain could cause the river to flood the city. POSSIBILITY
• Nancy could ski like a pro by the age of 11. PAST ABILITY
• You could see a movie or go out to dinner. SUGGESTION
• Could I use your computer to email my boss? REQUEST
• We could go on the trip if I didn't have to work this weekend. CONDITIONAL

Had Better
"Had better" is most commonly used to make recommendations. It can also be used to express desperate hope as well as warn people.
• You had better take your umbrella with you today. RECOMMENDATION
• That bus had better get here soon! DESPERATE HOPE
• You had better watch the way you talk to me in the future! WARNING

Have To
"Have to" is used to express certainty, necessity, and obligation.
• This answer has to be correct. CERTAINTY
• The soup has to be stirred continuously to prevent burning. NECESSITY
• They have to leave early. OBLIGATION

Have Got To
"Have got to" is used to express necessity and obligation.
• Drivers have got to get a license to drive a car in the US. NECESSITY
• I have got to be at work by 8:30 AM. OBLIGATION

"May" is most commonly used to express possibility. It can also be used to give or request permission, although this usage is becoming less common.
• Cheryl may be at home, or perhaps at work. POSSIBILITY
• Johnny, you may leave the table when you have finished your dinner. GIVE PERMISSION
• May I use your bathroom? REQUEST PERMISSION

"Might" is most commonly used to express possibility. It is also often used in conditional sentences. English speakers can also use "might" to make suggestions or requests, although this is less common in American English.
• Your purse might be in the living room. POSSIBILITY
• If I didn't have to work, I might go with you. CONDITIONAL
• You might visit the botanical gardens during your visit. SUGGESTION
• Might I borrow your pen? REQUEST

"Must" is most commonly used to express certainty. It can also be used to express necessity or strong recommendation, although native speakers prefer the more flexible form "have to." "Must not" can be used to prohibit actions, but this sounds very severe; speakers prefer to use softer modal verbs such as "should not" or "ought not" to dissuade rather than prohibit.
• This must be the right address! CERTAINTY
• Students must pass an entrance examination to study at this school. NECESSITY
• You must take some medicine for that cough. STRONG RECOMMENDATION
• Jenny, you must not play in the street! PROHIBITION

"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.
• When you go to Berlin, you should visit the palaces in Potsdam. RECOMMENDATION
• You should focus more on your family and less on work. ADVICE
• I really should be in the office by 7:00 AM. OBLIGATION
• By now, they should already be in Dubai. EXPECTATION

"Would" is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb "will." Additionally, "would" can indicate repetition in the past. For more information on the grammar behind the modal verb "would," visit the following tutorials: Conditional Tutorial, Future in the Past, and Would Always.
• If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. CONDITIONAL
• I knew that she would be very successful in her career. PAST OF "WILL"
• When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. REPETITION

Үйл хавсрал

An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".
In the following examples, each of the highlighted words is an adverb:
The seamstress quickly made the mourning clothes.
In this sentence, the adverb "quickly" modifies the verb "made" and indicates in what manner (or how fast) the clothing was constructed.
The midwives waited patiently through a long labour.
Similarly in this sentence, the adverb "patiently" modifies the verb "waited" and describes the manner in which the midwives waited.
The boldly-spoken words would return to haunt the rebel.
In this sentence the adverb "boldly" modifies the adjective "spoken."
We urged him to dial the number more expeditiously.
Here the adverb "more" modifies the adverb "expeditiously."
Unfortunately, the bank closed at three today.
In this example, the adverb "unfortunately" modifies the entire sentence.
Conjunctive Adverbs
You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus."
The highlighted words in the following sentences are conjunctive adverbs:
The government has cut university budgets; consequently, class sizes have been increased.
He did not have all the ingredients the recipe called for; therefore, he decided to make something else.
The report recommended several changes to the ways the corporation accounted for donations; furthermore, it suggested that a new auditor be appointed immediately.
The crowd waited patiently for three hours; finally, the doors to the stadium were opened.